Know your bean
Third Wave Coffee
The First Wave of coffee was the initial spread of coffee to the consumer, in the 1960s. The coffee was simply consumed for its caffeine, and not necessarily enjoyed. Towards the 1990s the Second Wave of coffee took place, with the wide spread of espresso machines, and the transition from Robusta towards the Arabica species, and productions of better quality coffee. The drink has been modified with milk, sugar and flavours, making it a hot beverage to sip and enjoy a conversation over.
Currently we are experiencing a Third Wave in the field of coffee, which is about enjoying the coffee for what it is. Coffee, just like wine, is a crop that starts with farming. In the wine industry you will typically see on the label at least the country of origin, winery name, and the vintage year. The Third Wave barista should be able to communicate to the coffee consumer the different characteristics of the beans, including basic information such as: the country of origin, the actual estate it comes from, the altitude of the farm, the roasting degree, the date of roasting. At Canada Coffee we are transitioning from the Second to the Third Wave coffee movement.
Darker roasts overwhelm the subtle flavour differences among varietals, making them taste more uniform. With that in mind, Third Wave Coffee roasters often roast only until just after the First Crack, to bring out and accentuate the unique, intrinsic fundamental flavours of the coffee plant varietal, and not roast away the fine nuances of a premium-grade bean.
The Coffee Plant Variety
There are 25 major species within the Coffea genus (the coffee plant). Although indigenous to the Kaffa region of Ethiopia, coffee plants are now cultivated in more than 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions, as they grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions. They range in size from small shrubs to trees. The coffee plants produce white flowers and red berries (cherries) that contain seeds. These seeds are the "beans" from which the coffee beverage is made. Of the 25 species, only 2 are commercialized: Robusta (canephora) and Arabica.
The beans are round, smaller, with a bubble dome and a straight crease. Robusta trees yield more coffee beans and are more disease resistant. They produce coffee 40%-50% higher in caffeine, more more bitter and with more body. Robusta accounts for almost 40% of commercial coffee production.
The beans are oval, about 1 cm length, with a flatter dome and an irregular crease. The most known varieties are Typica and Bourbon, with numerous sub-varieties. Arabica accounts for more than 60% of worldwide production. When handled well, Arabica beans produce complex and elegant quality coffee, therefore at Canada Coffee we only use the Arabica varietal.
Vital to the beans journey to your cup is: origin, process, roast profile, and the brew method.
The Coffee Origin
Knowing the origin of the coffee beans helps assessing its characteristics. The country, region, and cultivation altitude play an important role in the crop. Coffee grows in about 75 sunny countries situated in the equatorial belt, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Most notable countries producing coffee are: Ethiopia, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Yemen, Indonesia, Vietnam, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Hawaii, and Mexico.
Low elevation coffee plantations are easier and more efficient to farm, suited for mass production, but beans can over-ripen if they receive too much moisture. Robusta is mostly grown in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Robusta grows in lower elevations, from sea level to 700m, prefers higher temperatures (24C–30C), and more rainfall. Arabica is mostly grown in South and Central America and in Central and East Africa. Arabica grows best in shade (15C-24C), at higher elevations of 1000m-2000m.
Processing the Coffee Harvest
Five years after planting, the coffee berries ripen from green to red and they are harvested, mostly by hand, but in some places by machine. At this point the cherries are processed so that their outer layers are separated from the inner coffee seed ("beans"). There are three major types of processing the harvested coffee cherry: natural dry, semi-washed and washed.
The Processing step is followed by Milling, which helps remove any remaining fruit or parchment, leaving only the green beans ready to ship to the roaster. When stored properly in a cool, dry place, green coffee does not drop in quality from about 6 months up to 1 year until roasting.
Once the green coffee beans have arrived at the roasting facility, they have to be properly roasted, packaged, and labeled. Before entering production, the roaster first tests several sample batches to fine-tune the desired roasting profile. Roasting green coffee transforms starches into sugars, lowers acidity and develops its aromatic oils. Thru Cupping the roaster evaluates the beans by various categories, such as sight, smell and taste. A balanced coffee incorporates harmoniously the elements of Flavour, Acidity, Body and Aftertaste, and although it may be complex, does not have any overwhelming characteristics.
Although the outside surface of the coffee bean can appear sufficiently dark in colour, it is not a direct indication of the roast degree in depth. The development of delicious flavours is achieved by precisely roasting the inside of the bean. A too light interior colour denotes an underdeveloped roast and results in undesirable savoury flavours (grass, stem, peanut shell, corn, wheat).
When adding the green beans to the preheated roasting drum, coffee starts to develop sugars while drying. Water is evaporating and the beans turn yellow-brown. Light roasts end at 180C-190C, and typically have a light body with fruity and earthy aromas. The coffee tends to be more acidic, as the oils didn't break through to the surface.
Further roasting causes vapors and pressure to crack thru the bean. This stage is known as the First Crack (205C), when the sugars begin to caramelize and the native acids have fully developed. The roaster is now balancing the bright cleanliness of acidity with the round, sugary sweetness. Aroma and body increases throughout this stage. Medium roasts tend to have a medium brown color, with a stronger flavor and a non-oily surface.
During the last stage of roasting a.k.a. the Second Crack (225C), carbon dioxide forms and the sugars have been caramelized to a crisp. The bean loses 15% of its weight due to pyrolysis. The coffee reaches its lowest acidity and full body. The bean is now exhibiting a rich, dark color, and oily surface. Aromas are nutty and caramelly, with a slight bittersweet aftertaste.
Beyond this stage (240C) the beans are burnt black due to too much caramelization. The acidity is almost fully gone in dryer beans, oils develop on the surface, and the bean looks very shiny and black. Very dark coffee roasts lose their origin flavors and caffeine levels. The coffee aromas are spicy, smoky, and bitter or burnt, with a lighter body.
Roast Names: Half City, Cinnamon, New England
Stage: before First Crack (185C - 200C)
Bean Surface: Dry
Acidity: Very High to High
Aroma: Medium to Strong
Body: Thin to Full
Usage: Inexpensive Commercial Blends
Roast Names: American, City, Breakfast
Stage: during First Crack (205C - 220C)
Bean Surface: Dry
Aroma: Very Strong
Sweetness: Medium to Strong
Usage: Popular in the U.S.
Stage: during the Second Crack (225C - 245C)
Roast Names: Full City, Continental, Vienna, French, Italian
Bean Surface: Shiny Surface
Acidity: Low to Very Low
Aroma: Medium to Weak
Sweetness: Medium to Very Low
Body: Full to Thin
Usage: Specialty Roasters
Stage: beyond Second Crack (245C - 250C)
Bean Surface: Totally Shiny
Body: Extremely Thin
Espresso is the soul of the coffee, and knowing the roast is an essential part of the coffee experience. The Italian term "barista" refers to a professional specialized in preparing coffee and espresso-based beverages that demonstrate craftsmanship and quality, creating a culinary experience for the customer. A Third Wave barista not only performs a fast and consistent service, but is a student of the bean, a coffee ambassador. At Canada Coffee we work with experienced baristas that understand the complexity of coffee and its needs. To be a great barista there is a lot of theoretical and practical experience needed. If you are a barista or know a barista, join our team.
The process of extracting the coffee essence from the coffee beans depends on many factors, such as product freshness, humidity, the grinding process, the extraction time and the time it waits until the coffee is ingested or mixed with other ingredients. Every single one of these are extremely important to produce a high quality espresso shot.
Cold brewed coffee
When the hot water does not touch the coffee beans, all acids and oils are preserved. It's a longer extraction process but it respects the natural flavor of the product. The cold brewed coffee is therefore sweeter and less bitter.
In order for the final drink to be excellent, the milk has to meet several quality standards. For example the beginning temperature of the milk and pitcher, the appropriate technique to obtain a velvety microfoam texture, the ideal temperature for the final product.
Controlled organic farming
Our high quality organic teas are healthy, free from preservatives, chemical additives or artificial flavors (link to the tehnical file). The many minerals, vitamins and antioxidants provide numerous health benefits. These teas are environmentally friendly, totally free of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. All our organic teas come from controlled organic farming (certification ES-ECO-026-VAS) and fair trade.
Cold brewed tea
After water, tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. During the cold brewing process, the components of the organic tea leafs (flavors, tannins, proteins...) begin to extract into the cold water. Extracting tea in this manner allows it to retain all its vitamins, because tea has actually lots of vitamin C (150-300mg per 100g of tea leaves) and vitamins B, E and K!
Our organic infusions are free of caffeine, therefore can be drank at any time of the day. It is recommended to not mix them with milk or lemon. Also available for at home, in boxes of 15 pyramids for 6,35€. Click on the images for more detail.
Milder than other teas, green tea is unfermented roasted tea, making it a powerful antioxidant. The polyphenols help to slow down the aging. Caffeine makes green tea acts as a stimulant of the nervous system and helps overcome physical and mental fatigue. It also reduces the levels of LDL-cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, while raising the levels of HDL-cholesterol, the good cholesterol. It prevents oxidation of the cholesterol and protects against the arterio sclerosis. Green tea has been shown to reduce the abnormal formation of blood clots. Green tea also reduces the levels of blood sugar which is helps with diabetes and obesity.
Black teas have undergone a thorough process of fermentation. Their polyphenols contain high aromatic properties, invigorating and a strong of flavor. These components give black tea its antioxidant and diuretic properties. Due to its content of flavonoids, the black tea helps to relax the blood vessels. Black tea also helps the non-oxidation of good cholesterol, helps the cardiovascular system. Its fluorine content helps prevent dental caries. Black tea has no calories, increases energy levels, is comforting and stimulating.
No harmful preservatives or chemicals
We wish to offer products as healthy as possible. In order to have a superior quality product, we avoid for as much as possible anything treated with chemical pesticides. These products are not only healthier but have a richer flavour. For example we offer organic hot tea and organic iced tea from controlled agriculture.
Our desserts and snacks are neither pre-frozen nor pre-cooked; they are 100% freshly baked in-store, and you will notice the difference. We prepare everything by hand from scratch, baked with love and handled with joy, so that you can enjoy the best Canadian flavours. This is what it separates us from the crowd. We only use the finest ingredients. We avoid preservatives, shortening or trans-fats. Every day we make sure that the products we offer maintain their original properties and are in impeccable condition.
Our high quality organic teas are healthy, free from preservatives, chemical additives or artificial flavors. The many minerals, vitamins and antioxidants provide numerous health benefits. These teas are environmentally friendly, totally free of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. All our organic teas come from controlled organic farming (certification EEC 2092/91) and fair trade. The quality/price of our organic tea is excellent and you are invited to a delicious cup of organic tea.
After water, tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. During the cold brewing process, the components of the organic tea leafs (flavors, tannins, proteins...) begin to extract into the cold water. Extracting tea in this manner allows it to retain all its vitamins, because cold brewed organic iced tea has lots of vitamin C (150-300mg per 100g of tea leaves) and vitamins B, E and K!
Arguably the healthiest item on the menu, all our green smoothies are prepared with natural fruit, fresh vegetables, and no ice or water. The green smoothies are very healthy due to their high contents in vitamins, fiber and minerals. They maintain you hydrated and facilitate digestion due to their low levels in fats, sodium, calories and cholesterol; and have no added sugars. They are a rich source of energy, refreshing, nutritious and delicious. Optionally you can add a booster: cocoa powder, protein powder, flax seeds, dark chocolate.
Enjoy our fresh cupcakes, carefully baked everyday, handcrafted from the finest ingredients, in flavours that will make your mouth water! Canada Coffee is your quality supplier for cupcakes without any preservatives or other chemicals. Because they are free of chemicals, we recommend eating them within 48 hours. Not only do we bake everything from scratch, we also fill, frost, and decorate everything by hand, avoiding harmful ingredients. We also make most of our extracts from scratch as well.
We prepare all our ice creams and sorbets in store, with quality ingredients, without any chemical additives, colorants, or preservatives. Take a bite and you will surely notice the difference!
All our Fresh Juices are prepared on the spot using natural fruit. They are full of vitamins and other goodies that fruits have to offer. Enjoy them inside, on our terrace or on-the-go.
Know what you enjoy most
All our vegan products are prepared with soy, without any eggs or dairy products. On our premises we use dairy products, nuts and flour with gluten, therefore there may be traces of gluten, dairy or nuts. We strongly caution individuals with SEVERE nut, gluten, wheat, and/or dairy allergies against consuming our products.
Say YES to ecological disposables!
Ecological Cups, Recipients and Cutlery
With Canada Coffee you make an effective contribution to the environment. In Spain only 0.5% of the plastic cups and containers are produced with ecological plastic. We are proud to say that our cups, cutlery and recipients are recyclable, biodegradable and sustainable, made with raw material from controlled production (FSC certified). Link to the declaration of conformity.
Unlike foam, styrofoam, and other oil-derived plastic cups, our ecological recipients are manufactured with a minimum amount of natural resources (raw materials, energy and water). They are 100% organic and biodegradable, as they are made using organic material that decomposes naturally into the soil. Take care of the planet with us!
During the production of these containers, the CO2 emissions are very low, thus the process produces a minimal carbon footprint. They are made with renewable and reusable plant by-products and other recycled materials. The waste disposal is environmentally friendly (recycling, composting, incineration with reduced emission of harmful substances).
Our eco-friendly packaging reduces the negative impact on the environment. After the end of their life cycle, they do not harm the environment because they are fully recyclable, biodegradable, compostable and sustainable. In an industrial composting plant, our recipients based on plant starch decompose naturally between 30 to 90 days.
Using eco-friendly disposable packaging helps to deal with some of the growing contemporary problems, such as energy dependence and climate change. In our café you can separate waste: yellow for plastics, blue for paper and cardboard, and grey for organic products. Help us recycle for a life without waste!
The cups that we use to serve our drinks have an internal protective layer. This film is a barrier for flavours and odours especially conceived so that the liquid does not interact with the cup. Therefore, the cup does not absorb any liquid and neither does it transfer any of its substance to the drink. Therefore the taste of the drink is not affected. This protective layer is also produced with renewable resources and is fully biodegradable.
Single use disposable cups and containers allow the comfort to enjoy your favourite drink either at our café or to go. With every drink you get a fresh new cup, so they are hygienic and safe for your health. In addition, there is no need to consume energy cleaning and drying dishes, as is the case with ceramic, glass or porcelain, and neither is there any water pollution associated with chemical detergents.
The ecological plastic PLA complies with the DIN 13432 normative and will compost naturally in less than 90 days, according to weather conditions and microorganisms. Plastics derived from petroleum need centuries to decompose. Harmful remnants could end up in the food chain, and worst of all are the leftovers floating in seas and oceans. Contrary to these, plastics produced with natural resources such as our ecological recipients, reduce oil dependence and help the environment.
After extracting sugar from the sugar cane plant, the residue left over is a pulp. During the production of 100 tons of sugar, about 43 tons of pulp is left over. This is used for manufacturing cardboard and paper, but also for single-use recipients such as dishes, cups and boxes. It is made in China because it has one of the largest cultivation areas for sugar cane worldwide. There is no rainforest in China, thus the production does not require any deforestation. All sugar cane recipients are certified for contact with food products (BfR). The production is certified according to BRC.
All our cardboard cups for the hot drinks are recyclable, biodegradable, compostable, and sustainable, with reduced carbon footprint, from controlled production (FSC certified). The interior finishing is vegetable starch. The plastic lids for the hot drinks are recyclable, but not compostable.
All our transparent cups and lids for the iced drinks are 100% plant starch and compostable between 30 and 90 days (certified DIN/EN 13432). Their production used 60% less CO2 emissions and 50% less non-renewable energy compared with conventional polymers (PET/PS).
Our wooden cutlery is biodegradable, plastic free, sustainable, 100% compostable, and originates from certified tree cultivation (FSC certified). Our take-away boxes are made with recyclable raw materials from the left over sugar cane fiber used in the production of sugar, and do not require raw materials to be produced. They are biodegradable, and compostable (certified ASTM D6868 and EN/DIN13432).